Duke of Normandy
King of England, 1066-87.
The illegitimate son of Robert I of Normandy, he was unwillingly accepted as Robert's heir, succeeding to the dukedom of Normandy in 1035. Supported initially by Henry I, king of France, he consolidated his position in Normandy against hostile neighbors throughout the 1050s and expanded his territory in 1060. Having apparently been designated Edward the Confessor's successor as king of England, William secured the agreement of Harold, Earl of Wessex to his accession. Harold's assumption of kingship was the direct cause of William's invasion of Engalnd and the ensuing Battle of Hastings (1066) . Ruthlessly crushing internal resistance and defeating the invading Danes, he completed his conquest by 1070. He established stable government through astute land distribution and by instituting feudalism in England. One of the greatest achievements of his reign was the compilation of the Domesday Book (1986).
Note: His grandmother was Gunnor/Gonnor (b. Abt 950), who was dau. of Herbastus, Sire of Crepon (b. abt 911), and sister of Herfast (male), Sainfria, Weiwa, and Awelina (females). I wasn't sure from email@example.com's posting which side this was on. He also mentioned having a succession of Danish Kings from Frode VII (d. 548) through Harald II (d. 981), purported to be father of Gunnor (but he discounts that one).
He succeeded his father, Hugh Capet, in 996. He repudiated his wife in 989 and became interested in a relative, Bertha, wife of Eudes I, Count of Blois. They were married after Eudes's death, and robert was excommunicated (998). Separated (1001), he remarried, fathering four sons. He conquered Burgundy (1015) adding it to the French crown.
Self-styled king of Italy (950-61) and protagonist in the career of Otto the Great. When Berengar attacked Pope John XII, Otto came to pope's defense and was crowned Holy Roman Emperor (962). Subsequent negotiations between John and Berengar ended in Otto deposing John and imprisoning Berengar.
King of Lorraine, 855-69.
Waldrade was his second wife.
King of Lotharingia, now Lorraine, a central section of Charlemagne's empire. Pope Nicholas I refused all his attempts to divorce his childless wife and marry Waldrada, his mistress, who had borne him children.
Holy Roman Emperor of the West with his father, Louis I, from 817. In the same year Louis made him heir over his younger brothers, Louis the Pious, Pepin, and later Charles the Bald, who were to rule separate kingdoms in his domain. However, when Louis I died (840), the two remaining brothers (Pepin had died in 838) defeated Lothair at Fontenoy (841) and divided the empire three ways.
King of France and of Germany, 814-840, emperor of the West, suceeded his father, Charlemagne
. Sincerely religious, he was troubled by rebellious sons and their territorial squabbles, which they pursued to the neglect of all else and hastened the end of the Carolingian Empire. He divided his empire among his sons (817) to take effect after his death, but the final disposition took place only after his sons made war on each other. His son Lothair I succeeded his as emperor.
King of the Franks, 768-814, and Holy Roman Emperor of the West, 800-814.
The eldest son of Pepin the Short, he inherited Neustria, the northwestern half of the Frankish kingdom, in 768 and annexed the other half upon his brother Carloman's death (771). Responding to threats against Rome and his own sovereignty, he led two armies into Italy and captured the Lombard throne (773). In reprisal to constant Saxon raids, he began a long (772-785) and brutal conquest of Saxony, finally securing it for Christianity and Frankish law. He also deposed the disloyal duke of Bavaria and defeated the Avars of the middel Danube (791-96, 804), adding new lands to his empire. By 811 he had established the Spainish March, a Christian refuge in northern Spain. He was coronated emperor by Pope Leo III (800). A man of great power and enthusiasm, he initiated the intellectual, artistic, and ecclesiastical awakening known as the Carolingian Renaissance. His empire, though lacking sufficient economic and political structure to maintain unity after his death, had combined the Germanic peoples for the first time. He was canonized in 1165.
King of the Scots, son of Cronan, lay abbot of Dunkeld, and grandson of Malcolm II. He was k
illed in 1040 by Macbeth for reasons unclear to historians. Two of his sons, Malcolm III Canmore and Donald Bane, were later kings of the Scots.
King of Scotland 1005-34, who in 1018 defeated the Northumbrians at Carham and secured the An
glo-Saxon district of Lothian permanently for Scotland. In the same year he gained control over Strathclyde, and thus completed the political unification of northern Brian. In 1031 he paid nominal homage to Canute, although the Danish ruler never interfered with his rule.
Frankish ruler. Upon the death of his father (714), he seized control of Austrasia and Neust
ria. He later conquered Burgundy, Aquitaine, and Provence and subjugated many German tribes across the Rhine. In 732 at Tours he halted the advance of the Muslims from Spain. He divided his kingdom between his sons Pepin the Short and Carloman.
Ruler of Austrasia (c. 679); mayor of palace and ruler of all the Franks (687-714). His defe
at of the Neustrians at the Battle of Terty (687) marked the ascendance of the Carolingians over teh Merovingians.